He who does not know can know by learning

Recommended Reading

Plymouth: Voyage, Community, War, by Nathaniel Philbrick, ISBN: 0143111973

Benjamin Quarles, author

The Negro in the American Revolution, by Benjamin Quarles, 1961, ISBN 0-8078-0833-4
“The Negro’s important role in the Revolutionary War stemmed from the inescapable fact that both sides needed black manpower. And both sides offered the Negro his freedom as a reward. This valuable book gives us an extraordinary sense of reality of the Revolutionary times and affords us glimpses of all of the levels of American society.”

The Negro in the Civil War, by Benjamin Quarles, 1953
“The Civil War was a revolution in many ways,” writes Benjamin Quarles in this renowned work. “But on one point there is common agreement: without slavery there would have been no resort to arms. Hence the slave was the key factor in the war. But the Negro’s tale was not merely a passive one; he did not tarry in the wings, hands folded. He was an active member of the cast, prominent in the dramatis personae. To him freedom was a two-way street; indeed he gave prior to receiving.”

Rafael Ocasio, author

A Bristol, Rhode Island, and Matanzas Cuba, Slavery Connection: The Diary of George Howe, by Rafael Ocasio, 2019 ISBN-13: 9781498562652
In the early 19th century, Cuba emerged as the world’s largest producer of sugar and the United States its most important buyer. Barely documented today, there was a close commercial relationship between Cuba and the Rhode Island coastal town of Bristol. The citizens of Bristol were heavily involved in the slavery trade and owned sugarcane plantations in Cuba and also served as staff workers at these facilities. Available in print for the first time is a diary that sheds light on this connection. Mr. George Howe, Esquire (1791-1837), documented his tasks at a Bristolian-owned plantation called New Hope, which was owned by well-known Bristol merchant, slave trader, and US senator James DeWolf (1764-1837)

James DeWolf and the Rhode Island Slave Trade by Cynthia Mestad Johnson, 2014, ISBN 9781626194793
“The ship records from this voyage showed that Levi sold 109 slaves for $28,200. In this shipment, there was the death of one male and one female slave, which was considered a low percentage of loss for slaving voyages. Also found in letters from James to Levi are instructions on revised tactics to avoid trouble with the law in both domestic and international waters.”

Catherine W. Zipf, “Finding Hope in “New Hope”: George Howe’s Diary of Life on a DeWolf-Owned Plantation in Cuba”. Rhode Island History: The Journal of the Rhode Island Historical Society, Vol. 78, No. 2, Spring 2021.